Dulu Gagal Ekspor ke Timur Tengah, Kini Ditolak Vietnam

Jakarta

Indonesia harus menerima kenyataan pahit ketika ekspor mobil ditolak negara lain karena terbentur standar emisi. Mobil buatan Indonesia yang baru standar Euro 4 tidak diterima di Vietnam yang sudah menerapkan standar Euro 5.

Direktur Eksekutif Komite Penghapusan Bensin Bertimbal (KPBB), Ahmad Safrudin, mengatakan mau tidak mau Indonesia harus menerapkan standar emisi yang lebih tinggi. Bukan cuma soal menyelamatkan lingkungan, tapi juga terkait persaingan dagang internasional.

“Kalau kita tarik ke era awal reformasi, kita juga sempat kehilangan pangsa pasar otomotif di Asia Tenggara setelah Thailand menerapkan Euro 2/II standard pada 2001. Sementara Indonesia baru adopsi Euro 2/II standard pada 2005. Sontak, Indonesia yang seumur-umur sebagai market leader otomotif di Asia Tenggara digeser oleh Thailand; kemudian kita hanya menjadi follower hingga sekarang. Padahal Indonesia adalah biggest automotive market di Asia Tenggara,” kata pria yang akrab disapa Puput itu dalam keterangan tertulis yang diterima detikcom.

Begitu juga sekitar tahun 2012-2014. Menurutnya, produk otomotif Indonesia gagal diekspor ke Timur Tengah karena negara-negara Timur Tengah telah menerapkan Vehicular Carbon Standard. “Di mana varian SUV dipatok emisi karbonnya 200 grCO2/km. Sementara emisi produk SUV kita masih 253 grCO2/km,” ujar Puput.

“Nah, saat ini kita juga tidak bisa menjual produk otomotif kita yang berstandar Euro 4/IV ke Vietnam, mengingat Vietnam telah menetapkan standard baru yaitu Euro 5/V standard pada 2022 ini,” sambungnya.

Menurutnya, banyak negara memanfaatkan isu lingkungan untuk menciptakan hambatan perdagangan internasional (new international trade barrier). Caranya, menghambat masuknya produk impor dengan tujuan melindungi produk domestik dan/atau produk asing yang punya afiliasi dengan kepentingan domestik.

“Contoh yang dilakukan oleh Vietnam dan Thailand di atas menunjukkan bahwa Pemerintah kedua negara tersebut sungguh cerdik, memainkan tombak bermata dua: memitigasi emisi sekaligus memenangkan perang dagang,” sebut Puput.

“Pilihan ada di tangan pemerintah, mau memperketat standar emisi kendaraan dan memainkannya sebagai tombak bermata dua: pengendalian emisi dan merebut pangsa pasar otomotif di Asia Tenggara. Atau kita hendak melanggengkan kenaifan kita dalam diplomasi iklim dan pengendalian emisi; hadir di berbagai konvensi dan konstelasi pengendalian krisis iklim namun tidak membawa bekal low emission products and services karya anak bangsa yang dapat dijajakan di pasar global; justru pulang membawa oleh-oleh products/services dari negara lain untuk dipaksakan dibeli oleh rakyat dengan dalih low emission and energy efficiency,” katanya.

Dia bilang, pengalaman pahit tersebut menunjukkan bahwa memproduksi kendaraan rendah emisi adalah keniscayaan. Hal ini seiring dengan kebutuhan akan teknologi rendah emisi yang menjadi tuntutan untuk mengurangi pencemaran udara dan memitigasi emisi gas rumah kaca (GRK).

“Pengurangan pencemaran udara menjadi urgent terutama untuk kawasan perkotaan yang padat dengan lalu lintas kendaraan bermotor yang memiliki intensitas emisi pencemaran udara tinggi,” ujarnya.

“Berbagai kota di dunia, termasuk Jakarta dan kota-kota besar lainnya di Indonesia memiliki masalah pencemaran udara yang relatif parah. Jakarta misalnya, intensitas pencemaran udara dalam kategori tidak sehat selama 1 dekade ini dengan parameter dominan PM10, PM2.5, O3 dan SO2. Rata-rata tahunan konsentrasi PM2.5 mencapai 46,1 µg/m3, jauh dari Baku Mutu Udara Ambient 15 µg/m3. Sehingga menyebabkan sakit atau penyakit seperti ISPA, asma, pneumonia, broncho-pneumonia, PPOK, jantung coroner, kanker, hipertensi, gagal ginjal, penurunan daya intelektual anak-anak dan mengharuskan warga Jakarta membayar biaya kesehatan yang mencapai Rp 51,2 T/tahun (2016),” beber Puput.

Simak Video “Ekspor Mobil ‘Made in Indonesia’ Meningkat, SUV Suzuki Kian Diminati
[Gambas:Video 20detik]
(rgr/din)

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