Jenis-Jenis BBM Yang Ada Di Indonesia dan Peruntukannya

Sahabat Oto…  Pasti sering mendengar istilah BBM yang merupakan adalah singkatan dari Bahan Bakar Minyak. Istilah ini sering digunakan untuk menyebut bahan bakar yang digunakan pada mobil dan sepeda motor. Padahal, penggunaan BBM sendiri tidak hanya terbatas pada kendaraan bermotor. Beberapa jenis BBM bahkan digunakan untuk jenis kendaraan lain seperti pesawat terbang.

BBM sendiri ada banyak jenisnya, mulai dari yang diperuntukkan bagi kendaraan hingga untuk kegiatan rumah tangga. Jika mengikuti pengelompokan dari Badan Pengatur Hilir Minyak dan Gas Bumi (BPH Migas), BBM dibagi menjadi sembilan jenis yaitu:

Aviation Gasoline (Avgas)

Salah satu jenis BBM adalah Avgas yang terbuat dari fraksi minyak bumi. BBM jenis ini dikhususkan penggunaannya untuk pesawat terbang dengan sistem internal combustion (pembakaran dalam) atau mesin piston yang menggunakan sistem pengapian. 

Aviation Turbine (Avtur)

Sama seperti Avgas, Avtur adalah BBM yang digunakan khusus untuk pesawat terbang. Bedanya, avtur dikhususkan untuk pesawat terbang dengan sistem external combustion (pembakaran luar) saja. Selain itu, Avtur juga bisa digunakan pada mesin turbin.

Minyak Tanah (Kerosin)

Minyak tanah merupakan minyak bumi mentah dengan titik didih antara 150 hingga 300 derajat Celcius. Karakteristik dari minyak tanah adalah penampakannya yang tidak berwarna. Umumnya, minyak tanah digunakan untuk keperluan rumah tangga seperti memasak, memanaskan air, hingga sebagai penerangan.

High Speed Diesel

Jenis lain BBM adalah High Speed Diesel (HSD), biasanya digunakan pada kendaraan bermesin diesel, baik itu yang menggunakan injeksi mekanik maupun elektronik. Selain untuk kendaraan, HSD juga bisa difungsikan untuk mesin industri berjenis diesel.

Minyak diesel

Minyak diesel berbeda dari HSD. Jika HSD diperuntukkan bagi mesin diesel dengan kecepatan tinggi, maka minyak diesel dibuat khusus untuk mesin diesel kecepatan sedang (medium speed diesel). Minyak diesel sering digunakan pada mesin kapal laut sehingga biasa juga disebut Marine Diesel Fuel (MDF).

Minyak Bakar

Minyak bakar dihasilkan dari proses pengumpulan residu minyak bumi sehingga memiliki tingkat kekentalan tinggi. Biasanya, BBM jenis ini digunakan pada proses pembakaran langsung seperti pada industri besar atau bahkan pada sistem pembangkit listrik tenaga uap.

Biodiesel

Biodesel merupakan bahan bakar alternatif pengganti minyak diesel. BBM jenis ini terbuat dari sumber daya terbarui seperti minyak nabati. Kebanyakan biodiesel yang ada saat ini mengandung 95% minyak diesel petroleum (minyak bumi) dengan tambahan minyak kelapa sawit (crude palm oil) yang telah menjadi Fatty Acid Methyl Ester sebesar 5%.

Bensin 

Terakhir ada bensin. BBM jenis ini diperuntukkan bagi mesin yang menggunakan sistem pengapian. Di Indonesia sendiri, bensin dikelompokkan lagi menjadi beberapa kategori menurut nilai RON.

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